OSHA Safety Program - Crane & Hoist Safety
Many types of cranes, hoists, and rigging devices are
used at [COMPANY] for lifting and moving materials. [COMPANY]'s
policy is to maintain a safe workplace for its employees;
therefore, it cannot be overemphasized that only qualified
and licensed individuals shall operate these devices. The
safety rules and guidance in this chapter apply to all
operations at [COMPANY] that involve the use of cranes and
hoists installed in or attached to buildings and to all
[COMPANY] employees, supplemental labor, and subcontractor
personnel who use such devices.
Supervisors are responsible for:
- Ensuring that employees under their supervision receive
the required training and are certified and licensed to
operate the cranes and hoists in their areas.
- Providing training for prospective crane and hoist
operators. This training must be conducted by a qualified,
designated instructor who is a licensed crane and hoist
operator and a full-time [COMPANY] employee.
- Evaluating crane and hoist trainees using the Crane
Safety Checklist and submitting the Qualification Request
Form to the Safety Office to obtain the operator's license.
- Ensuring that hoisting equipment is inspected and tested
monthly by a responsible individual and that rigging
equipment is inspected annually.
Crane and Hoist Operators are responsible
- Operating hoisting equipment safely.
- Conducting functional tests prior to using the
- Selecting and using rigging equipment appropriately.
- Having a valid operator's license on their person while
operating cranes or hoists.
- Participating in the medical certification program, as
Department is responsible for:
- Performing annual maintenance and inspection of all
[COMPANY] cranes and hoists that are not covered by a
program with maintenance responsibility.
- Conducting periodic and special load tests of cranes and
- Maintaining written records of inspections and tests,
and providing copies of all inspections and test results to
facility managers and building coordinators who have cranes
and hoists on file.
- Inspecting and load testing cranes and hoists following
modification or extensive repairs (e.g., a replaced cable or
hook, or structural modification.)
- Scheduling a non-destructive test and inspection for
crane and hoist hooks at the time of the periodic load test,
and testing and inspecting before use new replacement hooks
and other hooks suspected of having been overloaded. The
evaluation, inspection, and testing may include, but are not
limited to visual, dye penetrant, and magnetic particle
techniques referenced in ASME B30.10 (Hooks, Inspection and
- Maintaining all manuals for cranes and hoists in a
central file for reference.
Safety Department is responsible for
- Conducting training for all Crane & Hoist Operators
- Issuing licenses to Crane and Hoist Operators
- Periodically verifying monthly test and inspection
- Interpreting crane and hoist safety rules and standards.
All workers who use any [COMPANY] crane or
hoist shall have an operator's license. The company issues
licenses for authorized employees who have been specifically
trained in crane and hoist operations and equipment safety.
and Hoist Operators
To be qualified as a Crane and Hoist Operator, the
candidate shall have received hands-on training from a
licensed, qualified crane and hoist operator designated by
the candidate's supervisor. Upon successful completion
of training, the licensed crane and hoist operator and the
candidate's supervisor will fill out and sign the
Qualification Request Form and Crane Safety Checklist
and send them to the Safety Office for approval.
The candidate will be issued a license upon approval by the
Safety Manager. Crane and Hoist Operators must renew
their license every three years by satisfying the
requirements described above.
Crane and Hoist
Safety Design Requirements
Following are the design requirements for cranes and
hoists and their components:
- The design of all commercial cranes and hoists shall
comply with the requirements of ASME/ANSI B30 standards and
Crane Manufacturer's Association of America standards
(CMAA-70 and CMAA-74). [COMPANY]-fabricated lifting
equipment shall comply with the requirements in Chapter 2.2
(Lifting Equipment) of Mechanical Engineering Design
Safety Standards (latest edition).
- All crane and hoist hooks shall have safety latches.
- Hooks shall not be painted (or re-painted) if the paint
previously applied by the manufacturer is worn.
- Crane pendants shall have an electrical disconnect
switch or button to open the main-line control circuit.
- Cranes and hoists shall have a main electrical
disconnect switch. This switch shall be in a separate box
that is labeled with lockout capability.
- Crane bridges and hoist monorails shall be labeled on
both sides with the maximum capacity.
- Each hoist-hook block shall be labeled with the maximum
- Directional signs indicating N-W-S-E shall be displayed
on the bridge underside, and a corresponding directional
label shall be placed on the pendant.
- A device such as an upper-limit switch or slip clutch
shall be installed on all building cranes and hoists. A
lower-limit switch may be required when there is
insufficient hoist rope on the drum to reach the lowest
- All cab and remotely operated bridge cranes shall have a
motion alarm to signal bridge movement.
- All newly installed cranes and hoists, or those that
have been extensively repaired or rebuilt structurally,
shall be load tested at 125% capacity prior to being placed
- If an overload device is installed, a load test to the
adjusted setting is required.
- Personnel baskets and platforms suspended from any crane
shall be designed in accordance with the specifications in
29 CFR 1926.550(g).
General Safety Rules
Operators shall comply with the following rules while
operating the cranes and hoists:
- Do not engage in any practice that will divert your
attention while operating the crane.
- Respond to signals only from the person who is directing
the lift, or any appointed signal person. Obey a stop signal
at all times, no matter who gives it.
- Do not move a load over people. People shall not be
placed in jeopardy by being under a suspended load. Also, do
not work under a suspended load unless the load is supported
by blocks, jacks, or a solid footing that will safely
support the entire weight. Have a crane or hoist operator
remain at the controls or lock open and tag the main
electrical disconnect switch.
- Ensure that the rated load capacity of a crane's bridge,
individual hoist, or any sling or fitting is not exceeded.
Know the weight of the object being lifted or use a
dynamometer or load cell to determine the weight.
- Check that all controls are in the OFF position before
closing the main-line disconnect switch.
- If spring-loaded reels are provided to lift pendants
clear off the work area, ease the pendant up into the stop
to prevent damaging the wire.
- Avoid side pulls. These can cause the hoist rope to slip
out of the drum groove, damaging the rope or destabilizing
the crane or hoist.
- To prevent shock loading, avoid sudden stops or starts.
Shock loading can occur when a suspended load is accelerated
or decelerated, and can overload the crane or hoist. When
completing an upward or downward motion, ease the load
slowly to a stop.
At the start of each work shift, operators shall do the
following steps before making lifts with any crane or hoist:
- Test the upper-limit switch. Slowly raise the unloaded
hook block until the limit switch trips.
- Visually inspect the hook, load lines, trolley, and
bridge as much as possible from the operator's station; in
most instances, this will be the floor of the building.
- If provided, test the lower-limit switch.
- Test all direction and speed controls for both bridge
and trolley travel.
- Test all bridge and trolley limit switches, where
provided, if operation will bring the equipment in close
proximity to the limit switches.
- Test the pendant emergency stop.
- Test the hoist brake to verify there is no drift without
- If provided, test the bridge movement alarm.
- Lock out and tag for repair any crane or hoist that
fails any of the above tests.
Moving a Load
- Center the hook over the load to keep the cables from
slipping out of the drum grooves and overlapping, and to
prevent the load from swinging when it is lifted. Inspect
the drum to verify that the cable is in the grooves.
- Use a tag line when loads must traverse long distances
or must otherwise be controlled. Manila rope may be used for
- Plan and check the travel path to avoid personnel and
- Lift the load only high enough to clear the tallest
obstruction in the travel path.
- Start and stop slowly.
- Land the load when the move is finished. Choose a safe
- Never leave suspended loads unattended. In an emergency where the
crane or hoist has become inoperative, if a